A combination documentary/first person fictional interpretation loosely based on … This region would become a key area for the expansion of Christianity into the Roman empire. Garden City: Doubleday, 1975. These are: Steven J. Friesen, Twice Neokoros: Ephesus, Asia, and the Cult of the Flavian Imperial Family. It has also been influential in some philosophical appropriations of Revelation in western thinking. It is therefore the most common mode of interpretation within literalist postmillenial expectation. Garden City, Doubleday, 1981. J. Massyngberde Ford, Revelation: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary. You will soon receive emails about your favorite HISTORY shows. At the end of Vision II, when the seventh angel finally sounds his trumpet (11.15-19), then the heavenly throneroom of God is once again opened, and now there appears a new scene. Imperial Cults and the Apocalypse of John: Reading Revelation in the Ruins. WELCOME: You are logged in with an Unknown Provider and can now watch all available content. The "Past History" view. This yields our basic outline of the work, as follows: What results from this is a kind of composite picture created by the cumulative effect of all the material laid out this way. The book next contains seven short letters of exhortation to the Christian churches in the seven leading cities of Asia Minor -- Ephesus (2.1-7, Smyrna (2.9-11), Pergamon (2.12-17) , Thyatira (2.18-29). Now we see another important component of how Revelation works by thinking about its sense of the time-line of the story. © 2021, A&E Television Networks, LLC. The author was probably a Christian from Ephesus known as "John the Elder." The Bible is the holy scripture of the Christian religion, purporting to tell the history of the Earth from its earliest creation to the spread of Christianity in the first century A.D. Quite the contrary. It is almost universally followed in both New Testament scholarship and by scholars of Christian history. A new mode of interpreting Revelation beginning in the early XIXth century. It's been likened to "chinese boxes" where one opens up a box only to discover another box inside. With Sarah Ferguson, Marie Collins, Troy Grant, Scott Hallett. A fictional interpretation of biblical prophecies unfolding in the modern world. It was Titus who led the siege and destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE. Thus, the emphasis on interpreting Revelation, lies in equating its images with those events surrounding the return. Almost all New Testament scholars now take the view that Revelation was written during the reign of Domitian, sometime around 95-96 CE. b. This approach is sometimes called the "preterist" (or "past history") view, meaning that the events described in Revelation all took place in the past and the work must be read in that ancient historical context. The answer, we are now told, is that the war on earth is merely a continuation of a cosmic war begun in heaven between God and Satan (12.1-17). Pestilence, famine, war, and natural disasters will purge humanity before Jesus returns for the final battle between good and evil. So even Vision IV is carrying out the implications of the central scenes in Vision III. In this clip, historians and biblical scholars introduce the story of Revelation and its powerful visions, figures and language of the end time. Jesus breaks seven seals that unleash three waves of devastation--natural and man-made, from the sky and from deep within the earth. So, the sense of desperation and suffering that is so central to Vision II is a direct commentary on the outcome of the War of 66-70 CE. Adela Yarbro Collins takes a similar view of the purpose and overall outlook of Revelation, but she does not think the imperial cult itself was a concrete factor, nor that there was much real persecution. That the "beast from the sea" is the Emperor himself is made clear in a later passage in Rev. The LDS church states that more than 150 million copies of the Book of Mormon have been distributed as of 2011. Doomsday: Book of Revelation: National Geographic explores the Book of Revelation to see if there is more to it than prophecy. Nostradamus Effect is an American sensationalist television series that premiered on September 9, 2009, on the History channel. With a UCG.org account you will be able to save items to read and study later! The Bible comes to life in five two-hour episodes exploring the sacred text's most significant episodes, including Noah's journey in the ark, the Exodus and the life of Jesus. This is the opening of Vision III, the three Signs (or Portents) in Heaven, which are the centerpiece, both literarily and ideologically, of the entire work. And when will this apocalypse happen? Because it's a relatively short program (50 minutes), this results in its being lean on content. 38. The "Symbolic History" View. WGBH educational foundation, In Fight Against ISIS, a Lose-Lose Scenario Poses Challenge for West. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1984. So the time-line of the story moves in a kind of cyclical fashion so that we keep coming back to the "present situation" as it stood for the ancient readers of Revelation. The book is divided into smaller books that read as narratives. At the center of it all is the recognition of how Revelation is depicting the Roman Empire as the Great Whore, with the Emperor as the seven-headed "beast from the sea," who are the ones carrying out Satan's war against God on earth. So let's look briefly at the layout of Revelation. IMDb's advanced search allows you to run extremely powerful queries over all people and titles in the database. Based on the number 42 months (Rev. On each page it printed the King James translation of 1611 alongside of Scofield's own copious "notes" on how to read each passage of the Bible in conjunction with other "prophecies." The radical polemic of Revelation is saying, "how can those who call themselves Jews and Christians pay honor to the very family that destroyed the Temple, to the very empire that killed Jesus? But who is the Antichrist? FRONTLINE reports from Iraq on the miscalculations and mistakes behind the brutal rise of ISIS. The visions continue to unfold information for the ancient reader in order to describe its current situation. ISIS' growing foothold in Afghanistan is captured on film. The overall impact of Vision II, then, is to show the dire and precarious position in which the faithful are now standing, as they await the final things to take place. The Book of Revelation was written sometime around 96 CE in Asia Minor. Not so for people in the ancient world who would have been more accustomed to the complex nature of apocalyptic literature. All Rights Reserved. The Book of Revelation, the most terrifying and controversial book of the Bible, was written by an exiled prophet almost two thousand years ago. This symbolic or allegorical view is what lay behind St. Augustine's reading of Revelation, in which he argued that the 1,000-year reign was not a literal number at all but a figurative way of describing the "age of the church" on earth. This made most clear when we are told explicitly that the Great Whore is Babylon, who is seated on the Beast with seven heads, as seven hills (17.9). From 1909 to 1967 it sold more than 10 million copies; reprinted in 1967, it is said to have sold another 2.5 million copies by 1990. This type of imperial cult activity was something new in Ephesus during the days of Domitian. What is not uniformly understood is how political oppression or persecution against the Christians of Asia Minor influenced the situation and, thus, how Revelation was responding to this situation. Episode 1 The Children Have Been Used By The Devil. 11.2), the duration of the "trampling of the temple," Joachim concluded that this was period equal to the 42 generations in Matthew's genealogy from Adam to Jesus (Matt. It grew mostly out of Protestant theology with a strong reforming element, both in Britain and America. Posted on Aug 2, 2001 by Mario Seiglie Estimated reading time: 19 minutes. From this perspective, it was hard to compute how the 1,000 years, if taken literally, could refer to the past history of the church, since that would place the inauguration of the Millenium within the timeframe of the medieval Catholic Church. Award-winning reporter Sarah Ferguson presents Revelation, a ground-breaking documentary series on the criminal priests and brothers of the Catholic Church, their crimes laid bare for the first time in their own words. Find exactly what you're looking for! Steven Friesen, however, has produced the most thoroughgoing study of the extensive archaeological evidence for the existence and the operation of the imperial cult in Asia Minor. The result from this way of reading is that the ancient Christians were being told how God would ultimately triumph, and the faithful would be spared. Then it tells that the seven heads are seven kings (17.9-10), which finally give us the real clue that the "beast" is the Roman emperor himself. In doing so he demonstrates how the imperial cult was not just an enforced participation in particular sacrifices or festivals, but was a more widespread social, political, economic, and religious factor in the lives of provincial citizens. From Joachim's day down to the mid-XIXth century, this pattern of calculation became the most common form of literalist interpretation of the "predictive" capacity of Revelation. It was a prominent feature of many end-time calculations and interpretations during the Reformation period in Europe. It was this new and heightened imperial rhetoric, growing like wildfire in the provincial cities, that triggered "John's" reaction. They are no less than the henchmen of Satan!" web site copyright 1995-2014 The final chapters of the New Testament describe mankind's violent end of days--a seven-year period of unparalleled death and destruction. 13.1), which are explicitly identified as seven kings (Rev. 17, where the symbolism of the seven heads is spelled out. They are not used to this kind of literature. Also, apocalyptic literature was almost always a kind of literature for "insiders," that is to say, it was written for people who already knew something of the situation and of the symbols that were used to portray it. He shows convincingly that there was a concrete presence of the imperial cult (along the lines suggested also by Schüssler Fiorenza) that set the framework for the Book of Revelation. These previous profiles of current New Testament scholarship on Revelation show what is the dominant view of how to interpret the work in its historical context. 1.17). More than any other "future history" interpretation, this one has had the most impact on current literalist interpretations of Revelation. For his henchmen, the Dragon chooses two helpers, who are called "the beast from the sea" (13.1-10) and "the beast from the land" (13.11-18), who proceed to force all humans to worship the Dragon and the first beast. The Book of Revelation: Justice and Judgment. That is precisely the reflection that one sees in the description of the "two witnesses" (or martyrs) who are said to have been slain in the very city where Jesus was killed (11.1-13). Add to my study list. The Truth Behind the Dead Sea Scrolls: Experts unravel the mystery of the Dead Sea Scrolls and explore theories about their creation. In the final analysis one gets the sense that we (that is, the ancient "reader") are always in the sixth, just on the verge of the seventh thing happening. Secrets of The Book Of Revelation Documentary History Channel The book of Revelation is explained in a simple, understandable way in this full-length film.Who is the Beast? The first major interpreter to develop this view into a system of reading Revelation with current predictive value was Joachim of Fiore (1132-1202 CE). And its really only at this stage in the text (chapters 18-21) that it starts to look forward in a prospective way toward the near future. It thus provided a chainlink interreferencing system to the Book of Revelation, by which one could jump from passage to passage to follow the "true" meaning. a. Whereas there had been imperial cult activity for over a century in cities such as Pergamon, Ephesus had received its first imperial cult temple, and concomitant imperial awards and lofty titles, under Domitian in the year 89 CE. In the way they set up, the events described in chapters 12-13 are meant to explain how those circumstances in chapters 5-11 came about. Elisabeth Schüssler Fiorenza, Invitation to the Book of Revelation. So in Vision IV we see the final judgments against the evil forces of the Roman empire, and the final rewards of the faithful. But all of this probably comes out of a retrospection on the First Revolt and the devastation that occurred when Jerusalem and the Temple were destroyed. 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